What Is Grey Market & Grey Market Premium? – It’s Functionality

A grey market, also known as a parallel market, is a place where goods are traded outside of the producer’s official channels. It is a small business that sells products from a certain company while not being authorized dealers in the market. It’s worth mentioning, however, that the small businesses participating are all legal businesses. On the other side, a black market deals with goods that are illegally smuggled into the country in order to avoid paying import taxes and other fees. Since stocks are bought and sold on the stock exchange, a secondary market emerges (like any other market).

The grey market is not illegal, despite the fact that it is unlicensed. Issuers and underwriters can use the grey market to gauge demand for these securities’ new offerings.

Some of the factors that are needed to be considered are as follows: 

  • It may also be described as the unlicensed import and selling of goods.
  • Institutional traders, such as pension funds and mutual funds, shun grey market trading. 
  • There are a number of grey markets where considerable commerce takes place.
  • Publicly traded corporations’ reputations may be tarnished as a result of grey market activities.
  • Trading on the black market can be risky.

Let Us Now Explore Grey Market Now In Depth

It’s regarded as an unofficial market where IP shares can be bought and traded before being legally listed for sale on a stock exchange. There are no restrictions because this is an unregulated market. Unlike other stock exchanges in India, it is not overseen by the Security Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Typically, stock trading in this market begins shortly before a company’s initial public offering (IPO), suggesting that stock trading in this market begins before the company’s shares are publicly traded.

On the grey market, individuals buy and sell IPO shares before they are formally available for trading on the stock exchange. As it is an uncontrolled over-the-counter market, there are no restrictions. All transactions are one-on-one and cash-only. This transaction is not sponsored or promoted by any third-party entities, such as SEBI, the Stock Exchange, or brokers.

Only a tiny number of individuals engage in grey market commerce since there is no formal platform or set of regulations. The terms ‘Grey Market Premium’ and ‘Kostak’ are commonly used in the IPO grey market. It is regarded as an unofficial market in which IP shares are bought and sold prior to being listed for sale on a stock exchange.

Some of the grey marketplaces are rather large. Manufacturers confront hurdles when conducting business outside of traditional channels. Aside from the loss of direct sales, the grey market undermines brand equity and harms relationships in the official sales channel, which includes wholesalers, distributors, and retailers, whose exclusivity for wanted items is jeopardised.

The Agreement In The Grey Market

The agreement is binding in grey market trade, but it cannot be finalized until formal trading begins. This might lead to an unethical party withdrawing from the agreement. Because of this danger, certain institutional investors, such as pension funds and mutual funds, may be unwilling to participate in  market trading. The  market flourishes when there is a considerable price difference across nations for a popular commodity. Many countries have a significant  market because popular consumer products and equipment can be simply purchased online and delivered to any area. Luxury automobiles, high-end clothing, purses, and shoes, cigarettes, medications, and cosmetics are examples of  market items.

What Is An IPO Grey Market ?

The grey market premium IPO and the IPO market are not the same thing because there is no formal link between them. The IPO market is a legal, SEBI-regulated method of raising capital, whereas the grey market is an uncontrolled industry. Grey market premium trading is available in the majority of IPOs, but only in mainstream IPOs. If no orders are placed prior to the start of the IPO, the shares are closed at the listing price (hereinafter referred to as the settlement price). In IPO grey Market premium transactions, there is no brokerage involved, and all orders are made at the main price.

The illegal bidding and offering of a company’s shares is known as an IPO grey market. This takes place before the company’s first public offering (IPO) (IPO). The IPO Grey Market is an over-the-counter market where transactions are conducted in person between a limited number of participants. In most situations, the trades are arranged by the broker in the region. An investor can sell an IPO share or an IPO application on this market before the firm is listed on the stock exchange.

The premium at which IPO shares are sold in the grey market is known as the IPO Grey Market Premium (IPO GMP). The Kostak Rate is the price at which you may sell your IPO application for a predetermined price, regardless of your financial situation.

It is frequently determined by the performance of a company’s shares in the grey market, the performance of its initial public offering (IPO) after it is listed on the stock exchange, and the amount of listing gain that may be discovered on that IPO. However, merely based on the grey market premium, subscribing to a company’s IPO is not always the best decision, as the grey market premium might change at any time prior to the IPO’s listing. GMP investors benefit from this IPO on occasion, but not always. An IPO’s grey market premium is completely based on investor sentiment.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Grey Market

Advantages Of Grey Market

  • IPO Before an IPO is formally listed on the grey Market, investors can withdraw. Before the stock is listed, investors may gain from its price movement.
  • In the case of financial instruments, this market offers the issuer and underwriter with an estimate of share price and valuation prior to going public.
  • In the near run, this market favors the organization. It enables the manufacturer to create additional sales and revenues in the near term by utilizing both unauthorized and legitimate distribution channels.
  • Official wholesalers supply items for the grey Market on a regular basis. Because companies obtain bulk discounts from suppliers and need to get rid of surplus inventory, selling straight to grey Market makes them more money.
  • The most crucial market for start-ups determining whether or not to go public is the IPO grey Market. It aids startups in determining their worth.
  • This type of product market offers the same certified goods from the same authorized maker at a lower price. Due to the obvious lower pricing, customers are drawn to this sector.
  • Any securities that have been suspended from trading on the stock exchange are accepted in the IPO grey Market.

Disadvantages Of Grey Market

  • Price forecasts based on the premium are rarely true in the IPO grey Market. Additional institutional investor subscriptions may have a substantial impact on the price range.
  • Since the IPO grey Market has so few participants, estimates may not always reflect the true situation.
  • There is no regulatory authority over the grey market of financial securities. Manipulation gets more difficult as the opportunity for manipulation increases.
  • Due to the obvious evident risk, many institutional investors, including pension funds, foreign direct investments (FDIs), foreign portfolio investments (FPIs), mutual funds, and so on, avoid the grey market.
  • It has a detrimental impact on the reputation of the manufacturer. If the product does not meet the quality criteria, the manufacturer’s brand name suffers.
  • Such unlawful distribution strategies jeopardize the company’s legitimate supply chain, which comprises designated retailers, distributors, and wholesalers. As a result, product price stability suffers.
  • The company’s official distributors help with promotion and commercial development.
  • Also because delivery is handled through an unauthorized channel and dealer, there is no ‘After Sales Service’ for clients in the case of items.
  • The items on this market are extremely hazardous. Even though the things are made under the same brand name, the quality is not guaranteed.


As previously said, the grey market is an uncontrolled market. A frequent investor should consider the grey market to be a forecast of how the stock will perform once it is publicly traded. Despite a number of reservations, the grey Market for goods and financial assets remains one of the most popular. It benefits investors, dealers, issuing companies, entrepreneurs, and others in some way. Before diving in, entrepreneurs and businesses may utilize Grey Market to acquire a feel for the waters. It gives investors the possibility to earn. The IPO Grey Market serves as a trading platform for any stocks that have been stopped from trading on an exchange.

Ashba Rizvi
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